Today is the anniversary of an earthquake that shook Lisbon to its core.
In 1755, a devastating quake killed tens of thousands of people and caused 15-foot fissures through the center of the city. It was felt throughout the country, triggering a tsunami that swept through the center of Lisbon, a series of fires that lasted for days, and aftershocks that continued for months. Tremors and huge waves reached the shores of North Africa and the Azores.
Before the dead were even buried at sea, the city devolved into chaos. Gallows were constructed for looters, and dozens were publicly executed. The army was tasked with the stopping able-bodied citizens from fleeing and figuring out how to rebuild.
The psychological effects reached even King Joseph I, who became so claustrophobic that a complex of tents and pavilions had to be built on the outskirts of Lisbon to accommodate him. The Royal Palace was not even reconstructed until after his death.
But the King and his Prime Minister did manage to rebuild Lisbon. They presented plans just one month after the event; new public squares, wide boulevards and some of the world's first seismically protected buildings went up in the months after. By the end of 1756, the city had been mostly cleared of debris.
The event led to the birth of modern earthquake studies and seismology. Below, a look at how the earthquake was depicted at the time and photographs of some of its modern remains: