More than 400 zones in Britain's dominant city have extra rules. Disobeying them can get you a ticket.
There are the rules, and then there are the extra rules – special zone or neighborhood-specific regulations that can be difficult even for informed locals to keep straight. At least in London, these extra rules have now been mapped.
The map below, created by the civil rights group Manifesto Club, features five layers of London's extra rules: no leafleting zones, dispersal zones, no dog zones, alcohol confiscation zones, and no protesting zones. Together there are 435 zones that add up to more than half of the area of London.
"Zones are not generally marked with signs, but when you cross these invisible lines your normal freedoms are suspended; you can be punished for things which are not, outside of the zone, an offence," the site explains. Its description also argues that these extra rules tend to be enforced on specific groups such as the homeless and young people.
The map was created as part of the Manifesto Club's campaign against so-called "on-the-spot" fines – a relatively new policing system in London that enables officers to punish people on-the-spot for criminal offenses that would previously have been tried in courts. This effort argues that public space in London is being chipped away by overly judicious laws and enforcement tactics.
Image credit: Chris Helgren / Reuters