Planes stream above Paris's Place de L'Étoile in celebration of Bastille Day
Bastille Day at Paris's Place de L'Étoile, which was not, in fact, designed by Napoleon. Reuters

However, he's not completely wrong about Napoleon.

President Donald Trump talked about a lot of things in his latest interview with the The New York Times, and much of today’s pundit chatter revolves around his suggestion that he wouldn’t have hired Attorney General Jeff Sessions if he’d known the guy was going to recuse himself from the Russia investigation.

But here at CityLab our urbanist ears pricked up when we saw this: a report of a conversation with France’s President Emmanuel Macron.

“So I asked the President, so what about Napoleon? He said: ‘No, no, no. What he did was incredible. He designed Paris.’ [garbled] The street grid, the way they work, you know, the spokes. He did so many things even beyond. And his one problem is he didn’t go to Russia that night because he had extracurricular activities, and they froze to death.”

As noted by Yoni Appelbaum, our alert colleague over at The Atlantic, the president has his Napoleons confused.

It’s true that the Napoleon behind Paris’s 19th-century redesign was not the same one who invaded Russia—or as Trump chose to phrase it, apparently failed to invade because he had unspecified “extracurricular activities,”whatever that means. (Insert here your own speculation about what kind of extracurricular activities in Russia the president might be imagining.)

But Trump doesn’t get it entirely wrong. It was indeed Napoleon’s nephew, confusingly called Louis-Napoleon, or Napoleon III, (1808-1873), who led the remodeling of Paris and thus created the spoked city of wide boulevards we know today. But the more famous Napoleon—Napoleon Bonaparte (1769-1821), husband of Josephine, retreater from Moscow—did in fact play a small role in changing the layout of Paris. While he was still First Consul in 1801 (he crowned himself Emperor later), Napoleon did commission the construction of the Rue de Rivoli, a broad, paved street that, when complete, came to form central Paris’s main east-west axis. Napoleon even got involved in making sure the street stayed classy, issuing an order stating that butchers, workers using hammers, and “craftsmen whose condition requires the use of an oven” should be barred from setting up shop there.

But while Napoleon I did a little tinkering with the street plan here and there, it was really his nephew Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte who transformed the city. After he was elected president in 1848, Paris started to turn into the city we know today.

It might seem improbable comparing the French and British capitals in 2017, but in the mid-19th century, London was a more orderly, spacious, and well-planned city than Paris, whose labyrinthine, medieval street plan was still largely intact. Louis-Napoleon was the driving force behind a major redesign of the city, particularly in creating the huge, landscaped parks at the Bois de Boulogne and Bois de Vincennes. His chosen master planner, Georges-Eugène Haussmann, led the capital’s reconstruction. While the city already had some boulevard rings that pre-dated Napoleon I, it was Haussmann who smashed new avenues through its old streets, forming the spokes Trump mentions that radiate from huge squares.

As Vox notes, scrambled Napoleons are hardly the most serious errors of fact in the Times interview, and plenty of non-experts would similarly flub Parisian history. If I were American, I’d probably be more concerned about the fact that he seems to have no understanding of how health insurance operates.  

About the Author

Most Popular

  1. Equity

    The Price Black Voters Paid to Defeat Roy Moore

    Black voters endured waves of voter suppression to help elect Doug Jones to the U.S. Senate, and it didn’t have to be that way.

  2. Downtown Roanoke is pictured.
    Life

    The Small Appalachian City That’s Thriving

    Roanoke, Virginia, has become what many cities of its size, geography, and history want to be. It started by bringing housing to a deserted downtown.

  3. A maglev train on a test track outside Tokyo. A scheme to build a line between Baltimore and Washington, D.C., has been in the works for years.
    Transportation

    The Battle of the Supertrains

    Promoters are touting two different multi-billion-dollar high-speed projects between Washington, D.C., and Baltimore. Is it a fantasy, or a game changer?

  4. Environment

    The Story of the Great Lakes in 8 Maps

    The book Third Coast Atlas seeks to illuminate the Great Lakes—America’s “third coast”—through maps, plans, photos, and more.

  5. Basel's new streetcar is pictured.
    Transportation

    Switzerland's Border-Busting Streetcar Rolls Into France and Germany

    A new extension makes it the world’s only tri-national tram system.